Programming Fundamentals 1 Final Exam


When multiple devices are open, they form a numbered sequence with names giving the kind of device at any position. Note that calls to par() always affect the global values of graphics parameters, even when par() is called from within a function. This is often undesirable behavior—usually we want to set some graphics parameters, do some plotting, and then restore the original values so as not to affect the user’s R session.

The startup procedure under macOS is very similar to that under UNIX, does not make use of command-line arguments. The next section will look at data from the classical experiment of Michelson to measure the speed of light. This dataset is available in the morley object, silkn facefx reviews but we will read it to illustrate theread.table function. This is done both for efficiency , and to aid package developers, who are protected from name clashes with other code. The process of developing packages is described in Creating R packages in Writing R Extensions.

These components have less than m+1 vertices and there is no circuit and hence each component G1 and G2 have m1 and m2 vertices. Lists and dictionaries are mutable data types; strings and tuples are not. Method is invoked acts as a separatorthat gets placed between each element in the list in the returned string.

A spanning tree whose sum of weight of all its edges is less than all other possible spanning tree of graph G is known as a minimal spanning tree or minimum cost spanning tree. After making n2 comparisons, if any element of the array is 1, then it is a valid coloring. Now to assign a particular color to a vertex, determine whether that color is already assigned to the adjacent vertices or not.

An indexed variable like arrayname can be used anywhere a regular variable can be used, for example to assign a new value or to get a value from the array like below. Since the first element in an array is at index 0 the last element is the length minus 1. Try adding another value to the highScores initializer list and run again to see the length value change. Merge two-record sublists from C and D into four-record sublists; writing these alternately to A and B. Merge pairs of records from A; writing two-record sublists alternately to C and D.

Multiple regression y with model matrix consisting of the matrixX as well as polynomial terms in x to degree 2. Multiple regression of the transformed variable, log, on x1 and x2 . The first has an implicit intercept term, and the second an explicit one. The example is also given partly as a little puzzle in R programming. ## Remove all dimension names from an array for compact printing.

More complicated arrangements of multiple figures can be produced by thesplit.screen() and layout() functions, as well as by thegrid and lattice packages. The first value is the number of rows; the second is the number of columns. The only difference between these two parameters is that setting mfcol causes figures to be filled by column; mfrow fills by rows. 0 means left justify, 1 means right justify and 0.5 means to center horizontally about the plotting position.