Media Essentials


Over the years, the National Dairy Council and other organizations have also used schools to promote products—for example, by providing free filmstrips, posters, magazines, folders, and study guides adorned with member companies’ logos. Many teachers, especially in underfunded districts, have been grateful for these free materials. Another way commercials and marketing reach teens, tweens, and even younger kids is through their mobile devices, including smartphones and tablets. With mobile advertising exploding and an increasing number of kids having access to these devices, monitoring the ads children see is becoming even more difficult.

Updated examples in the text discuss Instapoet Rupi Kaur, Pulitzer Prize–winning rapper Kendrick Lamar, Overwatch and the rise of MMPORGs and MOBAs, Black Panther, 13 Reasons Why, and Deadpool 2, among others. Fully updated figures, tables, and graphs incorporate the latest in industry data. Cal codes consolidating the normative framework o.pen vape craft reserve in which such decisions are made. Indeed, journalistic ethics are not only exclusively a product of the profession but also of social conceptions regarding the media’s role in a society operating according to given behavioral and ideological codes. The various changes address three distinct but interrelated spheres of activity.

Part II presents findings from several content analysis studies of the British press that evidence how conservative newspapers, in particular, consistently violate this code with specific reference to their coverage of immigration. Part III then reviews a parallel body of experimental research that sheds light on how these violations can cultivate discriminatory attitudes and voter support for uncompassionate and unjust policies. Lastly, the article concludes with a discussion of what all the reviewed empirical findings suggest for British media regulators and policy makers. In the United States, the press’s watchdog role over the government is “rooted in a provision of the First Amendment through which the Framers sought to ensure press independence” (Onorato, 1986, p. 361).

For instance, one of the most famous tests of opinion and fair comment came with a case pitting conservative minister and political activist Jerry Falwell against Larry Flynt, publisher of Hustler, a pornographic magazine. The case developed after a spoof ad in the November 1983 issue of Hustler suggested that Falwell had had sex with his mother. The jury rejected the libel suit but found that Flynt had intentionally caused Falwell emotional distress—and awarded Falwell $200,000.

Of course, as with music, the Internet is changing radio, too, enabling companies like Pandora and Spotify to offer streaming audio for a huge array of formats. PR Agencies and In-House PR Staffs As of early 2019, LinkedIn maintained a list of more than ten thousand public relations companies. Many of the largest PR companies are owned by, or are affiliated with, multinational communications holding companies, such as WPP, Omnicom, and Interpublic (see Table 12.1).

Even so, the Sex Pistols—one of the most controversial groups in rock history—was eventually banned for offending British decorum. Punk didn’t succeed commercially in the United States, in part because it was so hostile toward the commercialization of the mainstream music industry. However, it did help break down the boys’ club mentality of rock, launching unapologetic and unadorned frontwomen like Patti Smith, Joan Jett, Debbie Harry, and Chrissie Hynde. It also introduced all-women bands whose members not only wrote but also performed their own music. Through these and other innovations, punk reopened the door to experimentation at a time when the industry had turned music into a purely commercial enterprise. Punk and Indie Respond to Mainstream Rock As rock and roll moved from the edges of the American music scene into the mainstream, other genres arose to take its place on the fringes.

Everyone hopes, of course, now that we have a code, similar practices will entirely disappear” (p. 3). Evaluating Cultural Studies Research A major strength of cultural studies research is that researchers can more easily examine the ties between media messages and the broader social, economic, and political world, since such research is not bound by precise control variables. For instance, media effects research on politics has generally concentrated on election polls and voting patterns. But cultural research has broadened the discussion to examine class, gender, and cultural differences among voters and the various uses of power by individuals and institutions in positions of authority. Yet just as media effects research has its limits, so does cultural studies media research. Sometimes cultural studies have focused exclusively on the meanings of media programs or “texts,” ignoring their effect on audiences.

Public television also broadcasts more adult fare, such as Sherlock and other imported British programs. In the early 2000s, despite the continued success of such staples as Sesame Street, government funding of public television was slashed. The Obama administration restored some of it, but with the rise of cable and satellite, people who have long watched PBS now often get their favorite kinds of content from sources other than network and public television.