Economic Inequality By Gender


The focus on the importance of symbols in building a society led sociologists like Erving Goffman (1922–1982) to develop a framework called dramaturgical analysis. There is always the possibility that individuals will make a gaff that prevents them from successfully maintaining face. They have to manage the impression they are making in the same way and often using the same type of “props” as an actor. Moreover, because it can be unclear what part a person may play in a given situation, he or she has to improvise his or her role as the situation unfolds.

Although we are aware of these limitations, our study also has several strengths. The first is that we tend to better understand the phenomenon of the glass ceiling by considering both its antecedents and its possible consequences for well-being at work. We extend the model developed by Elacqua et al. by proposing a more comprehensive model including the culture in relation to gender within the organization. tamil nadu express blog We also investigated the impact of the glass ceiling on women managers’ organizational attitudes and well-being at work by considering WFC as a possible mediator. In doing so, our study contributes to the literature considering that, to the best of our knowledge, no previous research has investigated the relationship between the glass ceiling and WFC through the model developed by Elacqua et al. .

According to Tidwell, households that challenge hegemonic cultural ideas ultimately give children a different perspective of gender than those of children raised in heterosexual, two parent households. In the families studied by Jada Tidwell, children reported ideas that both endorsed and challenged stereotypical gender roles at times. In a different study, Abbie Goldberg observed toddlers from various types of households and how these children engaged in play. Goldberg’s findings suggest that children whose parents are of the same gender tend to play in ways that are less adherent to stereotypical gender roles than children from heterosexual households. Susan Witt, in her article “Parental Influence on Children’s Socialization to Gender Roles”, advocates for androgynous gender roles in parenting, arguing that environments are more open minded about gender and encouraging to both their sons and daughters.

The glass ceiling and its antecedents were assessed using the questionnaires developed by Elacqua et al. . To develop their questionnaire, Elacqua and her colleagues had established a task force composed of employees of the company in which they carried out their study and an industrial/organizational psychologist with expertise in survey research. This task force developed a series of items relating to the different variables the authors wanted to measure.

Social network theory assumes that social interactions have the potential to influence attitudes and behavior. In the sphere of population this assumption has begun to be confirmed by demographers. Network models bear some similarity to diffusion models, but they offer a more structured approach to social interaction by focusing on the specific links that connect individuals and groups. In the 1980s interest in social networks by sociologists led to the collection of network data, the elaboration of theory, and the development of new analytic methods. Demographers have borrowed heavily from this theoretical and methodological work to guide their empirical analyses. Most have concentrated on fertility, investigating the fertility transitions of individuals in local communities, but network approaches have also been used in the study of migration and mortality, clusters of villages, population elites, and organizations.

Gender dissimilarities are found in the degree to which one views oneself as dependent on others, the size and content of one’s social network, and the giving and receiving of social support. Such gender gaps in social engagement bear essential implications as they may lead to differences in health outcomes and subjective wellbeing. A model for understanding the phenomenon of the glass ceiling is that developed by Elacqua et al. Through their study, these authors investigated why women managers rarely reach the highest levels of their organization. Therefore, these authors suggest that perceptions of differential treatment mediate the relationships between both these organizational factors (i.e., interpersonal and situational issues) and perceptions of a glass ceiling.

Sex differences consist primarily of differences in kin/nonkin composition of networks. This study examined the impact of social contacts (“It’s who you know, not what you know”) on job getting. Workers were interviewed to discover the source of information about their most recent job. Results show that social contacts were the most frequently used resources during the job-getting process and that these personal contacts were used more often in some occupational environments than in others. Contemporary economic research has sought to better understand the causes of this male aversion to working with female colleagues. On one hand, the discrimination in hiring and promotion that reinforces segregation is based on stereotypes about women’s skills.

This movement grew in only a couple of months to condemn powerful men in business, politics, news, and entertainment for their assaults against women. According to American gender theorist Judith Butler, a person’s gender is complex, encompassing countless characteristics of appearance, speech, movement and other factors not solely limited to biological sex. Societies tend to have binary gender systems in which everyone is categorized as male or female. Some societies include a third gender role; for instance, the Native American Two-Spirit people and the Hijras of India. There is debate over the extent to which gender is a social construct or a biological construct .