Case Study Questions For Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14 Biomolecules


Protein supplements are mostly denatured to increase absorption and reduce contaminants. Protein folding consists of a balance between a substantial amount of weak intra-molecular interactions within a protein and protein-solvent interactions. As a result, this process is heavily reliant on environmental state that the protein resides in.

For example, lipid droplets coated by pea protein-pectin have better stability to pH changes and spray-drying as compared to capsules coated by proteins alone. Either pea protein isolate or purified fractions of legumin and vicilin were explored for their potential to form protein-based nanoscale delivery systems. Isolate are milling of the peas, solubilisation of the proteins in water, alkali, or acid; then centrifugation to remove insoluble components. Then the solubilised proteins are precipitated at their isoelectric pH, and collected by centrifugation, or sieving, and dried as such or neutralised and dried.

Proteins change their shape when exposed to different pH or temperatures. Protein degradation in bacteria occurs in part through the transfer-messenger RNA system, which uses C-terminal fusion of the ssrA peptide to direct proteins to the endogenous ClpXP and ClpAP proteases for rapid degradation in E. Refers to the physical changes that take place in protein exposed to abnormal conditions in the environment.

This is one reason why homeostasis is physiologically necessary in many life forms. If a binding partner detected by co-IP truly interacts with a particular target protein, then multiple primary antibodies specific for the same epitope on that target protein should yield the same results. Antibodies that bind the same target protein but differ in epitope specificity may also co-IP the same proteins, although antibodies are known to prevent or disrupt the protein–protein interactions of protein complexes.

The tendency of water molecules to stick together is referred to as polarity. Chaperone proteins help some proteins fold into the correct shape. Some proteins can refold after denaturation while others cannot.

Fabricated gel-like pea protein Pickering emulsions and investigated their potential as intestine-targeted and sustained-release delivery systems for β-carotene. The emulsions were produced by microfluidization at 6.0% (w/v) protein concentration and varying oil fractions (ϕ) of 0.2–0.6. Processing conditions should be chosen to avoid unwanted reactions such as lipid oxidation, polyphenol oxidation and protein denaturation.

​​An example that we see in a day to day life is when we have a fried egg, we can observe denaturation there as well. The clear egg white turns opaque, this is a result of albumin getting denatured and coagulated. The process where a folded protein would unfold is under extensive research and it is highly possible that under sufficiently general conditions it can re-fold and may start showing what did kelly ripa do to her foot or exhibiting its natural biological activity. Additionally, proteins can be divided into two categories which are fibrous and globular. Fibrous proteins tend to be insoluble in water and globular or more soluble in water. What is an IT structure that we see in the proteins describes the arrangement of subunits that are present in a protein which is made up of more than one subunit.